The kings you are referring to are likely the Shah dynasty, which is one of the ruling dynasties in Nepal. The Shah dynasty, also known as the Gorkha dynasty, played a significant role in the unification and governance of Nepal. Here is an overview of the history of the Shah (Parbate) kings of Nepal:
- Prithvi Narayan Shah (1723-1775): Prithvi Narayan Shah is widely recognized as the founder of the Shah dynasty and the unifier of Nepal. He was the first king of the unified Gorkha Kingdom, which later expanded to become modern Nepal. Prithvi Narayan Shah’s military campaigns and diplomatic efforts led to the conquest of various principalities and the eventual unification of Nepal in the late 18th century.
- Successors of Prithvi Narayan Shah: After Prithvi Narayan Shah’s death in 1775, his son Pratap Singh Shah succeeded him as the king of Nepal. The Shah dynasty continued to rule Nepal, with various members of the family ascending to the throne over the years.
- Rana Period: During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a period of political domination by the Rana family took place in Nepal. The Ranas were hereditary prime ministers who held real power, while the Shah kings served as constitutional monarchs with limited influence.
- The End of the Rana Regime: The Rana regime came to an end in the mid-20th century. King Tribhuvan, a Shah king, played a pivotal role in the restoration of the monarchy’s power. The Rana rulers were overthrown, and King Tribhuvan was reinstated as the constitutional monarch.
- King Mahendra (1920-1972) and King Birendra (1945-2001): King Mahendra succeeded King Tribhuvan and ruled Nepal for several years. His son, King Birendra, later became the king. King Birendra’s reign saw several political developments and the introduction of constitutional reforms.
- Transition to a Federal Democratic Republic: The monarchy’s role and influence waned over time. In 2008, following the Royal Palace Massacre in 2001 and a decade-long civil conflict, Nepal transitioned into a federal democratic republic. The monarchy was abolished, and King Gyanendra, the last Shah king, was stripped of his powers and privileges.
As of my last knowledge update in January 2022, Nepal has been a federal democratic republic with an elected President as the head of state. Please note that developments may have occurred since then, and I recommend checking more recent sources for the latest information on Nepal’s political situation.